CEA Suggests Guidelines for Grid-to-Electric Vehicle Charging

CEA Suggests Guidelines for Grid-to-Electric Vehicle Charging

The vehicle-to-grid (V2G) concept involves EVs supplying electricity back to the public power grid to meet energy demands. The CEA’s report on V2G reverse charging calls for the inclusion of provisions for reactive power compensation in the CEA’s Technical Standards for Connectivity to the Grid Regulations. 

What is V2G Technology and why is it important?

The global V2G market, valued at $10 million in 2022, is anticipated to experience significant growth, reaching $11.3 million in 2023 and projected to reach $59.2 million by 2030. The CEA has recommended measures to standardize and ensure the interoperability of batteries to facilitate the integration of EVs with the grid through reverse charging.

The Ministry of Power requested in March that the CEA form a committee to create guidelines for the reverse charging of electric vehicle (EV) batteries to the grid. 

Opportunities from Surging EV Deployment: 

The CEA report emphasizes that since electric vehicles (EVs) spend 80–90% of their lifetime parked, their built-in battery storage capacity makes them an appealing and adaptable solution for the power system, generating large amounts of electricity storage capacity within EV fleets. Also, the report emphasizes that these EVs serve as flexible loads and decentralized storage resources, adding extra flexibility to support power system operations.

🟦 The CEA recommends a comprehensive approach that encompasses standardization, interoperability, bidirectional charging systems, and optimizing grid infrastructure requirements to address these challenges. 

🟦 It recognizes the importance of aggregators in participating in the electricity market through ancillary services, but it also acknowledges challenges in the ongoing development of EV charging infrastructure and integration. 

🟦 It highlights the need for a comprehensive policy and regulatory framework that carefully considers the impact of added EV load on the network. 

🟦 Distribution utilities grappling with high EV loads may face network congestion, voltage fluctuations, reactive power compensation requirements, increased peak load, and phase imbalances.

The report advocates for distribution companies (DISCOMs) to develop EV readiness plans, supporting effective load management strategies, grid upgrade plans, and additional power procurement if necessary. 

It also highlights additional responsibilities for DISCOMs, emphasizing their role in providing electricity connections for EV charging infrastructure, implementing tariff structures, and ensuring proper operation and maintenance.

Synergies between Renewable Energy and EVs: 

With the adoption of EVs, V2G strategies synchronized with renewable energy sources can minimize extra load impact on the power system and leverage synergies between EVs and renewables. 

EV fleets can offer substantial electricity storage, but optimal charging patterns depend on the specific energy mix, varying between high solar-based and wind-dominant systems. If synergies are established, EVs can charge all vehicles by distributing available power across vehicles without overloading local feeders.

Even though electric vehicles (EVs) do not emit any emissions when they are driven, the electricity they use is typically derived from fossil fuels. To optimize the benefits of transport electrification, it is important to coordinate with the decarbonization of the power sector, as demonstrated by countries like Sweden and Japan. 

In solar-based systems, the advantages of V2G are especially noteworthy. By coordinating charging with solar PV generation and implementing V2G, higher solar shares can be integrated, which lowers the requirement for distribution grid investments. 

Mid-day charging stations at workplaces and commercial premises are necessary for EVs to complement solar power. Pre-cabling and smart chargers should be encouraged in commercial buildings.

The report highlights the significance of smart charging infrastructure in facilitating the integration of renewable energy on a large scale. 

It also highlights the need for regulatory policies that promote the sustainable integration of electric vehicle charging systems. The CEA acknowledges that electricity is a cost-effective fuel for the transportation sector and that the ability of EVs to store and return energy to the grid enhances power system operations. 

However, despite these benefits, there are certain obstacles to be addressed, including increased peak demand, grid congestion, and the need for distribution infrastructure upgrades for high-power chargers. The report identifies technology standards, electric load

Other Key Recommendations: 

The report suggests establishing charging hubs strategically to enable two-way interaction between mobility and the grid, improving EV charging infrastructure at workplaces during the vehicle’s stationary period of approximately 5–6 hours, and encouraging Original Equipment Manufacturers to look into the capabilities of V2G-enabled EVs for implementing reactive power compensation, which aims to maintain charged EV batteries while avoiding additional discharge-charge cycles. EV sales in India as of the third quarter of 2023 reached 371.